Case studies for selected substances

Alternatives for certain substances and group of substances

The SUBSPORT Methodology for Alternatives Assessment was tested on exemplary substances. This subpage directs towards the comprehensive SUBSPORTplus Case Studies. If you have not found what you are looking for on SUBSPORTplus, you can find more information about alternatives in the portals and links mentioned at the end of this subpage.

SUBSPORTplus Case Studies

The original SUBSPORT project developed a method to evaluate alternatives for certain substances and groups of substances. Based on the "SUBSPORT methodology for the evaluation of alternatives of selected substances", more detailed case studies have been prepared in 2013-2015. Some examples of these case studies are given below and can be used as inspiration for your own search for alternatives and as a reference point for an evaluation.

Following case studies for certain substances and substance groups have been prepared

Bisphenol ABottles and containers for food and beverages, beverage and food packaging, thermal paperSUBSPORT Specific Substances Alternatives Assessment – Bisphenol A (PDF, 743 KB)2013SUBSPORT
Nonylphenol and Nonylphenol­ethoxylateDetergents and cleaning agents, paints, adhesives, textiles, leather goodsSUBSPORT Specific Substances Alternatives Assessment – Nonylphenols and Nonylphenol ethoxylates2013SUBSPORT
Parabene (Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Butylparaben)Preservative in cosmetics, food and beverages, cleaning agents, pharmaceuticalsSUBSPORT Specific Substances Alternatives Assessment – Parabens2013SUBSPORT

The case studies and the SUBSPORT Specific Substances Alternatives Assessments Methodology are only available in English. There are other, old case studies (from 2013) on the following substances: formaldehyde, chloroalkanes, hexabromocyclodecane, lead, perchloroethylene and chromium(VI). These case studies can be found in the case story database.

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Studies and Reports on Alternatives from Other Sources

Other institutions and authorities have carried out surveys and studies on the availability and implementation of alternatives for selected hazardous substances in specific uses. Below is a list of some examples of reports that describe current alternatives.

List of further case studies

Chrom VIChrome plating for the rolls of skin-pass millSubstitution of chrome plating for the rolls of skin-pass mill2016EU commission
ChromtrioxideFunctional and decorative chrome platingSurvey on technical and economic feasibility of the available alternatives for chromium trioxide on the market in hard/functional and decorative chrome plating2020BAuA
Isothiazolinone, e.g.
C(M)IT/MIT, Formaldehyd
In-can preservationSurvey on alternatives for in-can preservatives for varnishes, paints and adhesives2020BAuA
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)Food Contact MaterialsPFAS and alternatives in food packaging (paper and paperboard): Report on the commercial availability and current uses2020OECD
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)Coatings, Paints and Varnishes (CPVs)Series on Risk Management No. 80: Draft Report on Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Alternatives in Coatings, Paints and Varnishes (CPVs): Hazard Profile2023OECD
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)lubricants and construction products

PFAS and fluorine-free alternatives in lubricants and construction products


Danish EPA

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)Electronics and Energy sector

PFAS and PFAS free alternatives in the Electronics and Energy sector


Danish EPA

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)Cosmetics

PFAS and alternatives in cosmetics: report on commercial availability and current uses



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More information on Alternatives

In the search for alternatives, you can follow research and development work, conduct it yourself and exchange information on substitution approaches and progress in the appropriate networks. Innovations for new products, materials and processes are equally important. Consider branch solutions to avoid or reduce hazardous substances.
Different authorities, institutions and organisations provide support in the search for alternatives. Some helpful links are listed below.

  • ECHA
    On the website of the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), public information on alternatives, which have been investigated under REACH in the authorisation and restriction process, is available for specific substances. Information on alternatives for biocides may be provided in the context of public consultations on biocidal products regulation (BPR).
    In addition, ECHA is compiling practical examples under the substitution section.
    Chemicals in general
    Alternatives from the REACH-authorisation process
    REACH-restriction process
    Real life substitution cases
  • BAuA (Federal Institute of Occupational Safety and Health) (only German)
    BAuA offers a series of substitute TRGS (Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances) in the 600 series for various substances and processes (e.g. TRGS 617 - Substitutes for surface treatment agents with a high solvent content for parquet and other wood floors).
    Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances
    Summaries of the TRGS 600 - 619, which are dealing with restrictions on use, substitutes and substitution of processes or technology
  • UBA: Biozid Portal (only German)
    The German Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt, UBA) evaluates environmental hazards from chemicals. Information about alternative measure for biocides are compiled on the homepage.
    UBA Biozid-Portal
  • The Swedish Centre for Chemical Substitution
    The Swedish Centre for Chemical Substitution offers various information on substitution (tools, support on procedure) and trainings. In addition, it inspires to follow good examples of substitution.
    The Swedish Centre for Chemical Substitution
  • Marketplace by ChemSec
    ChemSec is an organisation committed to the use of safe alternatives. It offers various types of support for substitution, including Marketplace: an exchange platform to identify better alternatives and to contact suppliers and manufacturers of these alternatives.
    chemsec Marketplace
    The French National Institute for Industrial Environment and Risks (INERIS) offers information from companies on alternatives for the three groups of substances: bisphenols, phthalates and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs).
    Chemicals substitution
  • Interstate Chemical Clearinghouse (IC2)
    Interstate Chemical Clearinghouse (IC2) is a North American governmental organisation that promotes environmental, health and economic issues. It provides an extensive list of case studies and assessments of various alternatives, such as fluorine-free fire-fighting foams.
    Alternatives Assessment Library
  • OECD Substitution and Alternatives Assessment Toolbox (SAAT)
    The International Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) offers various instruments to support chemical substitution, including further information on alternatives and case studies (> 30) available on the OECD website.