General manufacturing, e.g. machinery, equipment, vehicles, other transport equipment
Building and construction work
coatings and paints, thinners, paint removers
Lead and chromate elimination
Lead and chromate are known for their hazards and efforts are made to eliminate them from various applications where they have been used on a large scale because of their availability and their high technical performances. Inorganic yellow pigments containing lead chromates could be replaced by bismuth vanadate, in some applications.
Lead sulfochromate yellow
CAS No. 1344-37-2 EC No. 215-693-7 Index No. 082-009-00-X
Lead compounds; sulfur compounds; chromates
Classification: hazard statements
H350 May cause cancer
H360Df May damage the unborn child. Suspected of damaging fertility
H373 May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure
H400 Very toxic to aquatic life
H410 Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Other adverse effects
The substance is: 1 carcinogen (IARC: chromium VI compounds), as listed in the Substance Database according to SUBSPORT Screening Criteria (SDSC).
Bismuth vanadium tetraoxide
CAS No. 14059-33-7 EC No. 237-898-0 Index No.
Reliability of information
Internet information: data are from an internet document and only a basic and partial evaluation could be performed
other toxic effects
Substance to be substituted: Lead sulfochromate yellow may cause cancer, may damage the unborn child and is suspected of damaging fertility, is very toxic to aquatic life, is very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects and may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure. Alternative substance: The alternative (bismuth vanadium tetraoxide) is not listed in the database for substances of concern according to SUBSPORTplus criteria. It is not known to be a carcinogen, mutagen or toxic to reproduction. It is known to be on the market in nanomaterial form.
Description of Substitution
Bismuth vanadium tetra oxide (bismuth vanadate) colour code is Yellow 184 and it can be used to formulate mainly greenish yellows but also other shades. It provides good opacity and gloss and has good stability to whether conditions, heat and light. Its good dispersibility makes it suitable for powder coatings. Bismuth vanadate can be used in different sectors and applications. The producer recommends it for high-performance industrial paints, architectural paints, coil coatings, powder coatings, automotive finishes (original equipment manufacturing and refinish) and plastics applications. It is suitable for plastics like PVC plasticised or unplasticised, Low Density Polyethylene - where it can replace lead sulphochromate yellow (Pigment yellow 34). Itis also suitable for other types of plastics like High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene or has limited suitability (preliminary tests needed) for polystyrene and many more (see Further information).
The substitution is easy to made. It prevents using hazardous lead chromates and provides good results in many applications. Since chromates are restricted due to their hazards (Pigment yellow 34 is on the REACH authorisation list) companies have to look for alternatives.
State of implementation
The alternative is available on the market in various formulations.
Type of information supplier
Producer / distributor
BASF: MSDS Search (-> Sicopal)
Type of publication and availability
internet publication freely available
Publication source: author, company, institute, year
The description is based on the information in 'GPS Safety Summary -Pigment Yellow 184', published by the producer (BASF) on its website, in July 2011.
November 26, 2021